|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 96-98
Symmetry and isometry of human adult hyoid bone: A cadaveric study in North Indian population
Bhavna Kalyan1, Rajan Kumar Singla1, Ravi Kant Sharma2
1 Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Patiala, Punjab, India
2 Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
|Date of Web Publication||9-Apr-2018|
Rajan Kumar Singla
Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Patiala, Punjab
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Hyoid bone fracture is one of the most integral parts of internal examination during autopsy of hanging, ligature strangulation, or a throttling case. The reasons why some hyoids fracture and others do not may be related to the nature, magnitude, and position of the force applied to the neck, age of victim, nature of instrument (ligature or hand) used to strangle, and intrinsic anatomical features of the hyoid bone, such as rigidity and shape of the bone and symmetry of greater horns. Materials and Methods: The material for the present study comprised of 30 dried hyoid bones (M:F: 15:15). Their outline was drawn on the graph paper to study the symmetry and isometry of the bone. Results: Forty percent of the hyoids bones were symmetrical, while 60% were asymmetrical. Similarly, the number of anisometric bone is more (86.6%) as compared with isometric bone (13.3%) in both the sexes. Conclusion: Hyoid bone is not bilaterally symmetrical bone. The incidence of asymmetrical and anisometric bones is more as compared with symmetrical and isometric bones in both the sexes.
Keywords: Hyoid bone, isometry, symmetry
|How to cite this article:|
Kalyan B, Singla RK, Sharma RK. Symmetry and isometry of human adult hyoid bone: A cadaveric study in North Indian population. CHRISMED J Health Res 2018;5:96-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Kalyan B, Singla RK, Sharma RK. Symmetry and isometry of human adult hyoid bone: A cadaveric study in North Indian population. CHRISMED J Health Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Jul 22];5:96-8. Available from: http://www.cjhr.org/text.asp?2018/5/2/96/229581
| Introduction|| |
The hyoid bone is a rather neglected structure of the human skeleton which has not been given sufficient attention. Anatomically, the bone consists of five elements, an unpaired body, and pairs of greater and lesser horns. All elements originate in the cartilaginous tissue of the pharyngeal (also known as branchial) arches. By a generally accepted concept of origin, the lesser horns and superior part of the body above the horizontal ridge are derived from the second, so-called hyoid arch, while the rest of the body and greater horns differentiate from the third pharyngeal arch.
Observation of hyoid bone fracture is one of the most integral parts of internal examination during autopsy of hanging, ligature strangulation, or a throttling case. Its incidence ranges from 0% to 68% in hanging and is said to be increased with age after 40 years. The reasons why some hyoids fracture and others do not may be related to the nature, magnitude, and position of the force applied to the neck, age of victim, nature of instrument (ligature or hand) used to strangle, and intrinsic anatomical features of the hyoid bone, such as rigidity and shape of the bone and symmetry of greater horns.
The left-right symmetry of hyoid bones corresponds to object symmetry, where a single structure is identical according to a given or selected plane, such as mid-sagittal plane. The matching symmetry, in contrast, is referred to in situ ations where two separate objects exist as mirror images of each other. Like most human skeletal structures, the hyoid bone is generally assumed to be bilaterally symmetrical. The evidence of asymmetry in the human hyoid bone has been explored in relation to the individual's sex  and body size.
On the other hand, the concept of isometry/anisometry deals with the position of tip of greater cornua with respect to each other. If the tips of greater cornua lie in the same coronal plane, the hyoid bone said to be isometric if not so, it is anisometric.
In the present study, an attempt has been made to find out the incidence of symmetrical/asymmetrical hyoid bones and isometric/anisometric hyoid bones and to correlate the same with its clinical and forensic importance.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The material for the present study comprised 30 dried hyoid bones (M:F: 15:15), made available from Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar. Bones were labeled from 1 to 30 with suffix M(male) or F(female). Each hyoid bone was examined for symmetry/asymmetry and isometry/anisometry.
For determining the symmetry of the hyoid bone, the outline of the bone was drawn on graph paper by pencil. The distal ends of the two greater cornua were joined (CD in [Figure 1]). Major transverse axis was also drawn (AB in [Figure 1]). A line was drawn in the mid-sagittal axis of the bone from the posterior surface of the body intersecting the previous lines at pointsPand P'. If the distance AP = PB, then the bone was labeled as symmetrical bone and if not, it was labeled as asymmetrical.
A bone is isometric if the tips of both greater cornua fall in the same coronal plane. If it is not so, the hyoid bone is anisometric. For this, the bone was kept on graph paper with body lying parallel to x-axis, and then a line was drawn touching the tips of the two greater cornua. If it is parallel to x-axis it is isometric, otherwise anisometric. Here, it is worth mentioning that the length of two greater cornua may not be necessarily same in isometric bones (see [Figure 2]).
|Figure 2: Symmetry and isometry of hyoid bones. (a) Symmetrical but anisometeric hyoid bone. (b) asymmetrical but isometric bone|
Click here to view
| Results|| |
In the present study, out of 30 bones, 12 bones were symmetrical and 18 were asymmetrical. A number of asymmetrical bones were more than that of symmetrical bones in both the sexes [Table 1].
In the present study, only 4 bones (13.3%) (2 each in males and females) were isometric rest and 26 bones (86.6%) (13 each in males and females) were anisometric [Table 2].
| Discussion|| |
[Table 1] compares the incidence symmetry of hyoid bone with the earlier study by Leksan et al. As evident from the table the number of symmetrical bones were more as compared to asymmetrical bones in their study, while in the present study, number of asymmetrical bones were more than that of symmetrical bones. This difference may be attributed to the racial factors. Furthermore, Leksan et al. found the incidence of symmetrical bones to be more in males and asymmetrical to be more in females, while in the present study, no such difference could be seen.
Pollanen et al. found that unilateral fractures of hyoid bone are more common as compared with bilateral ones. This led them to believe that asymmetry of hyoid bone is responsible for determining the location of fractures. It was further supported by the experimental hyoid distortion studies using interferometry which showed asymmetrical displacement of hyoids under applied loads.
Earlier, Papadopoulos et al. found anisometric bones in 59% of their sample. It was though more in our study, but definitely, the incidence of anisometric bones is more as compared with isometric ones.
| Summary|| |
- The incidence of asymmetrical hyoid bones is more as compared with symmetrical bones
- The incidence of anisomery is more as compared with isometry in the hyoid bones
- Symmetry/asymmetry and isometry/anisometry of hyoid bones do not depict any sex difference.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Urbanova P, Hejna P, Zatopkova L, Safr M. The asymmetry and modularity of the hyoid bone. Int J Morphol 2014;32:251-60.
Scheuer L, Black S. Developmental juvenile osteology. London: Elsevier Ltd.; 2000.
Naik SK, Patil DY. Fracture of hyoid bone in cases of asphyxia deaths resulting from constricting force round the neck. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2005;27:971-3.
Pollanen MS, Chiasson DA. Fracture of the hyoid bone in strangulation: Comparison of fractured and unfractured hyoids from victims of strangulation. J Forensic Sci 1996;41:110-3.
Klingenberg CP, Barluenga M, Meyer A. Shape analysis of symmetric structures: Quantifying variation among individuals and asymmetry. Evolution 2002;56:1909-20.
Pollanen MS, Ubelaker DH. Forensic significance of the polymorphism of hyoid bone shape. J Forensic Sci 1997;42:890-2.
Urbanová P, Hejna P, Zátopková L, Šafr M. The morphology of human hyoid bone in relation to sex, age and body proportions. Homo 2013;64:190-204.
Papadopoulos N, Lykaki-Anastopoulou G, Alvanidou E. The shape and size of the human hyoid bone and a proposal for an alternative classification. J Anat 1989;163:249-60.
Leksan I, Marcikić M, Nikolić V, Radić R, Selthofer R. Morphological classification and sexual dimorphism of hyoid bone: New approach. Coll Antropol 2005;29:237-42.
Pollanen MS, Bulger B, Chiasson DA. The location of hyoid fractures in strangulation revealed by xeroradiography. J Forensic Sci 1995;40:303-5.
Kasprzak H, Podbielska H, von Bally G, Fechner G. Biomechanical investigation of the hyoid bone using speckle interferometry. Int J Legal Med 1993;106:132-4.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2]