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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-27

The association of lifestyle with the physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, India


1 Public Health Dentist, Rotorua, New Zealand
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, A.M.E.'s Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, People's University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, SMBT Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Nasik, Maharashtra, India
5 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manasarovar Dental College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
6 Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jan-2018

Correspondence Address:
Binu Santha
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Rotorua
New Zealand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cjhr.cjhr_74_17

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  Abstract 


Purpose: To assess the association of lifestyle with physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 310 college going adolescents within an age range of 17–23 years from an Arts Institute in Bhopal city were selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess lifestyle factors (tobacco and alcohol consumption), regular physical activity, and dietary habits were used. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation were applied wherever indicated. Results: Out of the total study population, 54% were males and 46% were females. Majority, i.e., 66% of the total study participants were optimal weight, 28% were underweight, and only a few, 5% were overweight. A significant association was observed between lifestyle habits (P < 0.05) and regular physical activity and dietary habits. Conclusion: Lifestyle factors have a strong association with regular physical activities and dietary practices among the adolescents. The unsatisfactory lifestyle habits of adolescents are a major public health concern. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of depleted health. Hence, it is mandatory that health professionals keep a check and provide regular health education among children and adolescents.

Keywords: Alcohol, dietary habits, lifestyle, physical activity, tobacco


How to cite this article:
Santha B, Hongal S, Saxena V, Jain M, Tiwari V, Singh A. The association of lifestyle with the physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, India. CHRISMED J Health Res 2018;5:23-7

How to cite this URL:
Santha B, Hongal S, Saxena V, Jain M, Tiwari V, Singh A. The association of lifestyle with the physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, India. CHRISMED J Health Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jul 14];5:23-7. Available from: http://www.cjhr.org/text.asp?2018/5/1/23/223128




  Introduction Top


Lifestyle of an individual incorporates prototypes of culture and behavior and their personal habits such as physical activity, diet, smoking, or alcoholism that have developed through the process of socialization. It develops through importunate interaction with family and peers.[1]

Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyle. In developing countries such as India where traditional lifestyles still persist, risks of illness and death are connected with lack of sanitation, poor nutrition, personal hygiene, elementary human habits, customs, and cultural patterns. Behaviors such as smoking, physical exercise, activity in everyday life, alcohol consumption, diet, self-care practices, social contacts, and workstyle are important contributing factors to population health status and variations in ill-health with age.[1]

Tobacco in any form, smoking or smokeless, is a major risk factor for many oral diseases such as dental caries and oral cancer. The magnitude of the effect of tobacco on the occurrence of oral diseases is high, with users having many times the risk of nonusers.[2]

Reports of World Health Organization suggest that tobacco use in children and adolescents are reaching pandemic levels with many of them pursuing the habit into adulthood causing premature death due to smoking-related diseases. This is enhanced by impaired dietary habits along with deficient physical activity.[3]

It is important to understand these factors influence and affect young teenagers to imbibe deleterious habits which have an impact on their oral and general health and well-being.

Hence, this study was conducted to determine the association of lifestyle habits with the physical activity and diet among the adolescent population of Bhopal city, India.

Objectives

To determine the association between lifestyle habits and the adolescent's physical activity and diet.


  Materials and Methods Top


This is an institute-based cross-sectional survey. It was conducted in an Arts Institute of Bhopal city among the age group of 17–23 years. The study population was chosen by convenience sampling.

A pilot study was conducted involving twenty students who were not included in the main study, aiming to test the proposed methodology. The final sample size was 310 individuals.

Ethical clearance was taken from the college. Permissions for conducting this study were taken from Director of College Education, College Authorities and the subjects.

Inclusion criteria

  1. Students present on the day of survey
  2. Students between the ages of 17–23 years.


Exclusion criteria

  1. Students absent on the day of survey
  2. Students not willing to participate in the study.


A self-designed, close-ended, structured questionnaire was used to collect data which included the lifestyles smoking, use of alcohol and physical activity and dietary habits. The questionnaires were completed by the students in their classrooms, and teachers supervised the procedure. The questionnaire was formulated in English.

The collected data were coded, and a statistical analysis was carried out by using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS 20, IBM, USA). Analysis of the data was carried out by frequency distributions. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's Correlation were also applied wherever indicated.


  Results Top


The present study was conducted among adolescents in the age range 17–23 years. The associations between lifestyle habits and general physical activity and diet among the study participants were assessed among 310 participants. The study participants consisted of both male and female students. Majority of the study participants were undergraduates (92%) while remaining (8%) were postgraduate students. Nearly 54% males and 46% females constituted undergraduate students.

The association between the lifestyle habits and the physical activity and diet among the adolescent study participants was evaluated. Among the individuals with the habit of tobacco use, 26.6% males and 8.43% females had sugary food intake daily. This association was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.033). The lifestyle habits of reasons for not using tobacco, awareness regarding the harmful effects of tobacco, reason for tobacco use, and the frequency of alcohol use had no significant association with the physical activity and diet of the study population. The association between the efforts put to stop friends from tobacco use, and the frequency of sugar intake between the male (87.73%) and female (70.7%) participants was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.036). There was also a statistical significance between the frequency of tobacco use and regular physical exercise among the male (93.54%) and female (100%) participants. Among the male (36.55%) and female (27.65%) participants, the association between alcohol use and regular physical exercise was found to be highly significant (P = 0.000). The association between the lifestyle habit of reason for alcohol use and the performance of regular physical activity and exercise were found to be statistically significant (P = 0.023 and P = 0.002, respectively) [Table 1].
Table 1: Association between lifestyle habits and physical activity and diet

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Pearson's product moment correlation and Spearman's correlation between lifestyle habits and physical activity and diet among adolescent study population were analyzed. The correlation between the habit of tobacco use and the daily intake of sugary foods was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.025). The correlation between the efforts imparted to stop friends from the use of tobacco and the frequency of sugar intake was also found to be statistically significant (P = 0.033). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the frequency of tobacco use and regular physical exercise (P = 0.029). There was a significant correlation between the habit of alcohol use and regular physical exercise (P = 0.000). Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between reasons of alcohol use and regular physical activity and regular exercise (P = 0.017 and P = 0.002, respectively) [Table 2]. However, there was no correlation found between the reasons for not using tobacco and the awareness regarding the harmful effects of tobacco with physical activity and diet among adolescent study participants.
Table 2: Pearson's R and Spearman's correlation between lifestyle habits and physical activity and diet

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  Discussion Top


In this study, an association between lifestyle habits (such as tobacco and alcohol consumption) and physical activity and diet rich in sugar intake was evaluated. A significant association was found between tobacco usage, frequency of tobacco use, and regular physical activity. Adolescents who used tobacco and alcohol more frequently were irregular with the physical activities.

Routine use of sugars and increased frequency of sugar intake in any form were also high among adolescents with the habit of tobacco and alcohol use. This can be attributed to the fact that adolescents with these deleterious habits do not follow healthy regular dietary practices, and as a result, they tend to snack in between meals.

A positive correlation was seen between tobacco usage, alcohol consumption and sugar intake and lack of regular physical activity. These differences were statistically significant. This can be mostly due to the inability of these adolescents to sleep at proper times and wake up early in the mornings to perform the physical activities because of the time mismanagement as a result of these deleterious habits. Alsubaie [4] suggested that regular physical activity and exercise have a direct association with the lifestyle habit of tobacco smoking among the adolescents, which is in coherence with this study. Fonte et al.[5] suggested the alarming adoption of many of the deleterious behavior and lifestyle patterns of the adult population by children, and this resulting in increasingly sedentary lifestyle with less physical activity and exercise. This is in accordance with this present study which has found an association between the deleterious lifestyle habits of alcohol and tobacco use and physical activities. Subasi et al.[6] opined a significant relation between lifestyle behavior of smoking and leisure physical activity. This was the same result obtained in this study. May [7] opined that dietary intake of carbohydrate and proteins was significantly associated with the intake of alcohol. Carbohydrate intake was significantly lower in moderate and heavy drinkers compared with lower levels of alcohol consumption, and protein intake was also significantly lower in heavy drinkers compared with lower levels of alcohol consumption. This is in accordance with the present study in which a significant association was found between alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Peer et al.[8] suggested an increased association between smoking and physical inactivity and inadequate micronutrient intake among the urban youth population. This was in accordance with the present study. This can be attributed to the factors such as social and cultural constraints that previously prevented adolescents from smoking are weakening, especially in urban areas, and traditional constraints can no longer be relied on to maintain the relative low smoking prevalence. The nutrition transition, from a traditional diet high in carbohydrate and fiber and low in fat to a diet higher in fat and salt, is evident and associated with urbanization trends. The high prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake and the high levels of inactivity in these adolescents are of concern and can only be expected to worsen from adolescence to adulthood.


  Conclusion Top


The pattern of tobacco use among adolescents between the ages of 17 and 21 years of Bhopal city was 84.8%. A significant association was found between the habits of tobacco usage and alcohol usage with regular physical activity. Adolescents using tobacco and alcohol were more frequently irregular with the physical activities. Routine use of sugars and increased frequency of sugar intake in any form were also high among adolescents with the habit of tobacco and alcohol use. The adolescents with deleterious habits such as alcohol and tobacco consumption tend to have poor dietary habits and physical activity which may result in the occurrence of health impairments in this group of population. Continuous monitoring and regular review of this population are mandatory for the betterment of their well-being in the future.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Purohit B, Singh A. Lifestyle and oral health. Adv Life Sci Technol 2012;3:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Winn DM. Tobacco use and oral disease. J Dent Educ 2001;65:306-12.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Chadda R, Sengupta S. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents. Tob Induc Dis 2002;1:111-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Alsubaie AS. An epidemiological investigation of health-related behaviours among male high School adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Newcastle Univ 2010:3-10.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Fonte ML, Casali MP, Roggi C, Turconi G, Cena H. Does physical activity and sport practice lead to a healthier lifestyle and eating habits in male adolescents? J Nutr Health 2014;1:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Subasi F, Hey W, Mumcu G, Koksal L, Luleci E, Sur H. Onset of smoking behaviors and participation in leisure physical activities of Turkish adolescents attending vocational health schools. Int Electron J Health Educ 2006;9:81-91.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
May MC. The relationship among alcohol consumption, dietary Intake, and body mass index in young adults. La State Univ 2004:23-30.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Peer N, Bradshaw D, Laubscher R, Steyn N, Steyn K. Urban-rural and gender differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity among young black South Africans between 1998 and 2003. Glob Health Action 2013;6:19216.  Back to cited text no. 8
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