|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 268-271
Management of periradicular lesion using calcium sulfate graft: An unique case report
Department of Periodontology, Army Dental Centre Research and Referral, New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||11-Oct-2017|
15/202, Heritage Apartments, On DBP Road, Yelahanka, Bengaluru - 560 064, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Failure to root canal treatment can be attributed to inadequate treatment. Although highest standards are followed, still failure is inevitable. In most of the cases, the endodontic failure results from persistent or secondary intraradicular infection. Extraradicular infections may also be implicated in the failure of some cases. Paraendodontic surgery is warranted in periapical diseases treatment, when traditional endodontic therapy does not obtain satisfactory outcomes. The objective of this case report is to report a clinical case where an apicoectomy was indicated due to failure in conventional endodontic treatment followed by unconventional bone grafting using calcium sulfate.
Keywords: Apicoectomy, calcium sulfate, osteoconductive
|How to cite this article:|
Mukherji A. Management of periradicular lesion using calcium sulfate graft: An unique case report. CHRISMED J Health Res 2017;4:268-71
|How to cite this URL:|
Mukherji A. Management of periradicular lesion using calcium sulfate graft: An unique case report. CHRISMED J Health Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Apr 4];4:268-71. Available from: http://www.cjhr.org/text.asp?2017/4/4/268/216478
| Introduction|| |
The reason many teeth do not respond to root canal treatment (RCT) is because of procedural errors that prevent the control and prevention of intracanal endodontic infection. Certainly, the major factors associated with endodontic failure are the persistence of microbial infection in the root canal system and/or the periradicular area. In truth, a procedural accident makes it impossible to accomplish appropriate intracanal procedures. When traditional endodontic therapy does not obtain favorable outcomes, then periradicular surgery is recommended. The aim is to remove periapical lesion and achieve apical sealing, allowing soft and hard tissue regeneration.
According to the European Society of Endodontology 1994, the indications for periradicular surgery are obstructed canal with radiologic findings and/or clinical symptoms, extruded material with radiologic findings and/or clinical symptoms, failed RCT when retreatment is inappropriate (isthmus tissue, persistent acute symptoms or flare-ups, risk of root fracture), perforations with radiologic findings and/or clinical symptoms, and where it is impossible to treat from within the pulp cavity.
| Case Report|| |
A serving soldier aged 38-year-old reported to our department with complaint of pain in relation to 21 and 22 [Figure 1]. His past dental history indicated that he underwent RCT in 21 and 22, 3 years back. Tender on percussion was present in both teeth. Twenty-one had Grade III and 22 had Grade II mobility, respectively. On radiographic examination, incomplete obturation in relation to 21 and 22; as well as periapical radiolucency was observed [Figure 2]. The patient was given the option of extraction followed by prosthetic rehabilitation. The patient was not keen for extraction, so it was decided to save the tooth. After taking into clinical and radiographic findings, apicoectomy followed by bone grafting was decided upon. Re-RCT was done in 21 and 22. After 3 weeks, the patient was recalled for periapical surgery. Hematological investigations were nonsignificant. The topical anesthetic used was Lignocaine and the local anesthetic was 2% lignocaine with epinephrine 1:80,000. Neumann's incision was chosen, starting from the mesial surface of 23 to the distal surface of 11 [Figure 3]. With the aid of a scalpel blade size number 15 the intrasulcular incision was given. With the help of periosteal elevator the flap was reflected till periapical exposure was satisfactory and the defect was visible, measuring 5 cm × 2 cm [Figure 4]. Apical curettage was performed using lucas curette size 85 and 86 (Hu-Friedy). Then, around 2 mm of root resection was done in relation to 21 and 22 with the aid of size 702 bur.
|Figure 2: Radiograph showing incomplete root canal treatment in 21 and 22|
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After apical resection, apical surface planning and finishing were performed using multibladed drills. Since the defect was large, it was decided to fill it with calcium sulfate graft [Figure 5]. The flap was repositioned and fixed with moderated digital pressure and moist gauze. Suturing was done with 4.0 silk sutures [Figure 6] (Ethicon). Periodontal pack was applied in the operated area [Figure 7].
The postoperative medication prescribed to the patient were tablet Augmentin 625 mg every 8 h for 7 days, tablet Combiflam every 8 h for 5 days and tab Tinidazole 500 mg every 8 h for 5 days. 0.12% chlorhexidine solution twice a day was prescribed. The patient was advised soft and cold diet for 5 days. The patient returned after 7 days for suture removal. Healing was completely satisfactory, and patient was asymptomatic. Radiographs taken after 12 months showed density change within the lesion and trabecular reformation thus confirming healing of the lesion [Figure 8]. Mobility in both the teeth had decreased considerably.
| Discussion|| |
Endodontic surgery is a surgical procedure which consists of excision of pathological periapical tissue from root surface (including apical accessory canals), and lastly, canal or canals sealing against pathologic agents, thus reaching the goal of creating the best conditions for tissue health, regeneration, and creation of new structural support. Among the most adopted surgical methods to solve complications of conventional endodontic treatment are curettage with apical planing, apicoectomy, apicoectomy with retrofilling, apicoectomy with retroinstrumentation, and canal retrofilling and filling simultaneous to surgery.,
Apicoectomy consists of the surgical removal of apical portion of tooth. It can be indicated in several clinical situations such as periapical lesions persistent to conventional treatment, perforations, fractured instruments, apical delta removal, and external absorption presence.
Curettage at the periapical region ensures removal of the pathological tissue. Apical planing was also done as it is necessary because the cement covering the root apical portion gets reasorbed due to periapical lesion.
Various procedures have been advocated for regeneration of the periodontal apparatus, such as open flap debridement, natural or synthetic filling materials (bone grafts), and guided tissue regeneration. Bone grafts are any tissue or organ used for implantation or transplantation. Historically, autogenous and allogenic bone have been used with some success. Several other bone replacement grafts have been developed for use in periodontal therapy to support bone formation and defect fill.
Many reports in the literature describe the use of calcium sulfate as a bone substitute in orthopedics. Peltier  conducted a thorough literature review of studies which described the successful filling of bone void defects with calcium sulfate materials. Calcium sulfate was found in these studies to be generally well tolerated by tissues. These encouraging but sometimes inconsistent results sparked additional investigation on the use of calcium sulfate as a bone graft substitute containing antibiotics to treat infected bone. The fracture zone is immobilized by its setting reaction initiated by its wetting and subsequent conversion to a strong cement like material. Because of this immobilization, the fracture undergoes a natural healing process without any stress, which is necessary for repair of the fracture.
A study demonstrated that the treatment with a combination of beta tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate led to a significantly favorable clinical improvement in periodontal intrabony defects 2 years after the surgery. Another surgical case reported, medical grade calcium sulfate when mixed with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft was found to be a biocompatible composite graft with the ability to provide radiographic evidence of hard tissue repair of a periodontal intrabony defect. Here, calcium sulfate was used as regenerative material.
| Conclusion|| |
This case report illustrates the “successful management of large periapical lesion of maxillary incisors with endodontic treatment followed by periapical surgery.” The results confirmed satisfactory healing of the large periapical lesion which responded favorably to successful surgery. Calcium sulfate being cost-effective can be used in developing countries and yet achieve favorable results.
The authors would like to acknowledge Col (Retd.) M. K. Mukherji, Mrs. S Mukherji, and Dr. Siddharth Mukherji for their valuable help.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]