• Users Online: 444
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 208-211

Age and gender estimation from mandible using lateral cephalogram


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rajasthan Dental College, Jaipur, India
2 Department of Conservative and Endodontics, Darshan Dental College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Rajasthan Dental College, Jaipur, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Payal Dhaka
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, A 48, Bali Marg, Hanuman Nagar, Khatipura - 302 021, Jaipur, Rajasthan
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-3334.158675

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: The mandible is seen as an important tool for radiological identification because of several growth parameters that can be exploited using cephalometric analysis, ease of imaging, and no overlying bony structures. These parameters can be handy in age and gender assessment in extreme situations like mass murders, remains of dead exhumed and murderous mutilations, missing or severely burnt individuals, etc. Material and Methodology: The study was conducted on randomized 90 lateral cephalograms obtained from the Department of Orthodontics. Tracings of the radiographs were done manually and cephalometric points were marked. Three linear measurements of mandibular growth were; mandibular body length, mandibular length and mandibular height. Gonial angle was measured as the angle formed by the ramus line (RL) and mandibular line (ML). The values obtained were statistically analyzed by Student's t-test using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 7.0. Results: An increase in gonial angle was observed with increasing age in the present study but no statistically significant result could be obtained. However, a larger gonial angle was certainly observed in females. In the present study, the maximum mandibular growth rate was observed among females in the age group of 8-12 years. This finding is in accordance with the fact that growth spurt in females is noted at the age of 10-12. A statistically significant increase in the mandibular length (Gn to Go) was observed in females in the age group of 8-12 years (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The linear and angular parameters used in the study, when combined together, might prove to be of importance in studying the growth pattern of mandible in different age groups and gender. Further studies are recommended on a larger sample size of different ethnic inhabitants to derive an unvarying formula of age and gender assessment.

Keywords: Gonial angle, growth spurt, mandible


How to cite this article:
Dhaka P, Mathur E, Sareen M, Baghla P, Modi A, Sobti P. Age and gender estimation from mandible using lateral cephalogram. CHRISMED J Health Res 2015;2:208-11

How to cite this URL:
Dhaka P, Mathur E, Sareen M, Baghla P, Modi A, Sobti P. Age and gender estimation from mandible using lateral cephalogram. CHRISMED J Health Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Aug 7];2:208-11. Available from: http://www.cjhr.org/text.asp?2015/2/3/208/158675


  Introduction Top


The contribution of dentistry to human identification takes two main forms: The identification of human remains according to dental records existing antemortem, and a postmortem dental profiling in cases where there are no antemortem records. Identification of humans is an important part of the medicolegal practice, where forensic odontology has taken a significant place. [1]

Research into facial growth and development is essential in forensic medicine. Among several maturational indicators, bones form a reliable source of information regarding growth and growth changes. Considerable attention has been paid to mandibular growth because it has been reported that this bone enlarges the most during adolescence. Furthermore, with development and function, the mandibular angle (gonial angle) has shown changes in shape and size.

The mandible is seen as an important tool for radiological identification because of several growth parameters that can be exploited using cephalometric analysis, ease of imaging, and no overlying bony structures. These parameters can be handy in age and gender assessment in extreme situations like mass murders, remains of dead exhumed and murderous mutilations, missing or severely burnt individuals, etc. [2]

To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind conducted on an ethnic population of Udaipur (Rajasthan). Formulae of age estimation using mandible derived by prior studies did not apply to our study population. This study was hence piloted to arrive at a new formula that would hold true for the ethnic population of Udaipur.


  Materials and methods Top


Aim and objective

To assess the mandibular growth parameters such as mandibular body length, length, height and gonial angle using lateral cephalograms in the study population for estimating the gender and chronologic age of an individual.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The criteria for sample selection demanded an ANB angle between 0 and 4. In this manner, subjects with skeletal class II or III were excluded (because of exaggerated growth).

Furthermore, patients with missing teeth or with syndromes, cleft lip or palate, or other craniofacial pathology, were also excluded. Patients with previous orthodontic treatment were also excluded as it might have affected the growth and development of mandible.

Study design

The study was conducted on randomized 90 lateral cephalograms obtained from the Department of Orthodontics. Tracings of the radiographs were done manually and cephalometric points were marked.

The study used the following cephalometric landmarks; point A (the most posterior point on the curve between anterior nasal spine and superior prosthion), point B (the most posterior point of the bony curvature of the mandible below infradentale and above pogonion), nasion (N), condylon (Co), gonion (Go), and gnathion (Gn).

Three linear measurements of mandibular growth were; mandibular body length (distance between Go and Gn) mandibular length (distance between Co and Gn) and mandibular height (distance between Co and Go) as per a study conducted by Rai et al., [3] [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Linear measurements of mandibular length, mandibular body length, and mandibular height

Click here to view


Gonial angle was measured as the angle formed by the ramus line (RL) and mandibular line (ML), where RL is a tangent to the posterior border of mandible and ML is the lower border of the mandible through the Gn as per a study conducted by Upadhyay et al., [4] [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Measurement of gonial angle

Click here to view


Statistics

All the measurements were done on a view box using a divider, scale, and mathematical protractor. The values obtained were statistically analyzed by Student's t-test using SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc.


  Results Top


The study constituted of 90 participants out of which 52 were females and 38 were males. The age range was 8-20 years.

[Table 1] describes the distribution of patients according to age groups.
Table 1: Patient distribution


Click here to view


[Table 2] shows the average linear measurements in males and females.
Table 2: Average linear measurements in males and females


Click here to view


[Table 3] describes the average growth rates in males and females. The growth rate was seen to be more in the age range of 13-16 years in males. While in females, the growth rate was noted to be higher in the 8-12 year age group.
Table 3: Average growth rates in males and females


Click here to view


[Table 4] shows the age and gender variation in the growth rates of study participants. Stastically significant difference was noted in the growth rate of females in the 8-12 years age group for mandibular length (P < 0.05).
Table 4: Age and gender variation in growth rates


Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In the present study, linear and angular parameters of mandibular growth were analyzed on cephalometric radiographs and were used to study the mandibular growth rate between different age groups. The study participants were divided into three groups that is, 8-12, 13-16, and 17-20 years; the linear and angular measurements were compared between age groups and gender.

It has been observed that the mandible grows in a posterior superior direction resulting in at anterior inferior displacement and that mandibular sagittal growth is due to anterior resorption in the ramus.

Hence, an increase in gonial angle was observed with increasing age in the present study but no statistically significant result could be obtained. However, a larger gonial angle was certainly observed in females. Remarkable growth of mandible occurs during puberty and the pubertal growth spurts are dependent on gender and vary in their relationship to the chronologic age. In girls, pubertal growth spurt usually starts between the ages 10 and 12 years, in boys between 12 and 14 years. [5]

In the present study, the maximum mandibular growth rate was observed among females in the age group of 8-12 years. This finding is in accordance with the fact that growth spurt in females is noted at the age of 10-12. A statistically significant increase in the mandibular length (Gn to Go) was observed in females in the age group of 8-12 years (P > 0.05).

An increase in growth rate with respect to all the linear parameters was observed in males in the age group of 13-16 years. This correlates with their growth spurt at the age of 12-14 years.

Although no statistically significant inference could be arrived upon, it was noted that the mandibular growth continued at an increased rate during these years (growth spurts) and varied between individuals based on age and gender. In the age group of 17-20 years, the mandibular growth slowed down and the values obtained between males and females were almost equal. Among the linear parameters, mandibular length (Gn to Go) showed the greatest variation among all age groups with least variation noted in mandibular height (Go to Co).

The values obtained for average linear measurements and growth rates for the study population in the present study varied from previous studies. An extended database for different populations is thus required to achieve an accurate formula for age estimation using mandibular growth parameters.


  Conclusions Top


In the present study, it was seen that the female mandible has a higher growth rate between the age of 8-12 years while the male mandible shows faster growth between 13-16 years. Beyond this (i.e., 17-20 years), the growth of both sexes is almost equal. Furthermore, the gonial angle showed an increase with age and was generally larger in females. Hence, it was noted that no single formula for age estimation could be arrived at for all age groups; it varied with age and gender of an individual due to the continuing growth during the pubertal growth spurts.

Hence, it can be concluded that the linear and angular parameters used in the study, when combined together, might prove to be of importance in studying the growth pattern of mandible in different age groups and gender. Further studies are recommended on a larger sample size of different ethnic inhabitants to derive an unvarying formula of age and gender assessment.

 
  References Top

1.
Chandra Shekar BR, Reddy CV. Role of dentist in person identification. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:356-60.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
2.
Shamim T, Ipe Varghese V, Shameena PM, Sudha S. Age estimation: A dental approach. J Punjab Acad Forensic Med Toxicol 2006;6:14-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Rai B, Krishan K, Kaur J, Anand SC. Technical note: Age estimation from mandible by lateral cephalogram: A preliminary study. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2008;26:24-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Upadhyay RB, Upadhyay J, Agrawal P, Rao NN. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
5.
Moore RN, Moyer BA, DuBois LM. Skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1990;98:33-40.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


This article has been cited by
1 ESTIMATION OF AGE FROM DRY HUMAN MANDIBLES AND CORRELATION OF AGE WITH MANDIBULAR PARAMETERS
Humaira Zainab,Veer Bhadrappa Nandyal
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2018; 7(36): 4027
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed4332    
    Printed39    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded842    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]