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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 263-265

A morphometric study of measurements of heart in adults and its relation with age and height of the individual: A post-mortem study


1 Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication16-Oct-2014

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chandni Gupta
Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal - 576 104, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-3334.143000

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  Abstract 

Objective: Reconstructive and replacement operations of diseased cardiac valves are commonly practiced these days. It may be noted that the choice of proper reconstructive intervention and prosthetic replacement might require the normal morphometric measurements of heart in relation with general body parameters, like age and height. So, this study was undertaken to measure various measurements of heart and its relation with age and height of the individual. Materials and Methods: Sixty five normal post-mortem hearts of adults were taken from the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine. Age of the individual was noted. Length of the deceased was measured with a measuring tape from the level of vertex to the outer border of heel. Length (from apex to base), breadth (at broadest diameter) and thickness of the heart were measured with slide callipers. Weight was measured with weighing machine. Results: The mean length, breadth, thickness of heart in males and females are 11.25, 8.78, 3.97 cm and 10.60, 8.31, 3.63 cm. The mean weight of heart in males and females was 323 and 276 gms. There was significant correlation with weight of individual and weight of heart in males. There was significant correlation with age of individual and length of heart in females. Conclusion: This study will be helpful for cardiothoracic surgeons while doing surgery on hearts.

Keywords: Age, breadth, heart, height, length, weight


How to cite this article:
Gupta C, Palimar V, Saxena A, D'souza AS. A morphometric study of measurements of heart in adults and its relation with age and height of the individual: A post-mortem study. CHRISMED J Health Res 2014;1:263-5

How to cite this URL:
Gupta C, Palimar V, Saxena A, D'souza AS. A morphometric study of measurements of heart in adults and its relation with age and height of the individual: A post-mortem study. CHRISMED J Health Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 May 19];1:263-5. Available from: http://www.cjhr.org/text.asp?2014/1/4/263/143000


  Introduction Top


Cardiac ailments fall among the common reasons of disability and morbidity in developing countries. In India, reconstructive and replacement procedures of diseased cardiac valves are commonly done these days. It may be noted that the choice of suitable reconstructive intervention and prosthetic replacement might necessitate the normal morphometric measurements of heart in relation with general body parameters, like age and height. [1]

Post-mortem heart weight is significant in determining whether the heart is normal. It increases in disorders such as hypertensive and valvular heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac failure due to several reasons and amyloidosis. [2]

For morphological measurements of heart, we still have to depend on foreign literature. There is a very scarce record on morphological differences of heart of different age groups and sexes. Thus, any effort at studying the morphology of heart would be valuable in understanding the racial features of the heart. Such a study is also likely to add to the standardization of the morphological dimensions of the heart. Taking the above background and foundation in mind, the present study was done on fresh post-mortem hearts of adult males and females.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study was done on 65 normal post-mortem hearts. Out of them, 46 were males and 19 were females. The samples were collected from autopsy at the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine.

The age of the subject was noted from the autopsy file. The length of the deceased was measured, with a graduated measuring scale present on the autopsy table, from the vertex to the heel. Weight of the subject was measured using the weighing scale in the mortuary.

The heart was then removed. It was then washed thoroughly and squeezed to remove blood. Measurements were then taken with a measuring tape [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Measurements done on hearts L- Length of heart, B- Breadth of heart

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Length: The length was measured from the apex of the heart to a point on the base (superior border) of the heart in the middle.

Breadth: The breadth was measured at the broadest part of the transverse diameter of the heart.

Thickness: The thickness was measured at the middle of the heart.

Weight: The weight of the heart was measured with weighing machine in gram (gm).

The data collected were processed to get mean values, standard deviation (SD) and appropriate statistical analyses were done through T-test.


  Results Top


The mean and range of all the parameters of hearts are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Measurements of the hearts

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In this study, we found that in all individuals there was significant correlation with age of individual and length and weight of heart as P < 0.05. But there was no significant correlation with age and rest of the parameters of heart as P > 0.05.

In this study, we also found that in all individuals there was significant correlation with height of individual and length of heart as P value was 0.004. And there was also significant correlation with weight of individual and weight of heart as P value was 0.000.

In this study, there was significant correlation with weight of the individual and weight of heart in males as P value was 0.000. There was no significant correlation with age of individual and any parameters of heart as P value was > 0.05. Even there was no significant correlation with height of individual and length of heart as (P > 0.05) in males.

In females, there was significant correlation with age of individual and length of heart as P value was 0.02. But there was no significant correlation with age and rest of the parameters of heart. There was no significant correlation with height, weight of individual and length, weight of heart as P > 0.05.


  Discussion Top


Heart ailment is the significant reason of disability and death. Incidence of heart ailments is growing day by day. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is accountable for 80-90% of these deaths. Apart from the possible variations in the distribution pattern of the coronary arteries, there might be variations in the size of different coronary arteries and their branches. This is because there can be racial variations in different measurements of human heart. [3]

In this study, the length of the hearts had a significant positive correlation with the age (P < 0.05) and height (P < 0.05) of the individuals but a study, in 2009, revealed that the length of the hearts had a non-significant positive correlation with the age (r = 0.286, P > 0.05) but a significant positive correlation with the height (r = 0.357, P < 0.05) of the individuals. [1]

In this study, the weight of the hearts also had significant positive correlation with age (P < 0.05) and weight (P < 0.05) of the individuals, which was similar to the findings of a study done in 2009. [1]

In this study, we have also looked for sexual differences and found that all parameters of heart are less in females as compared with males. This shows that female's heart is smaller in size than male's heart.

Comparison of our results with other authors is shown in [Table 2].
Table 2: Comparision of our results with other authors

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In 2009, a study found the mean length, breadth and weight of heart as 11.10, 9.38 cm and 235.92 gms whereas in our study, we got the values as 11.06, 8.64 and 310 gms. [1] Our mean length was almost similar to their mean length of heart.

In 1979, a study found that the total weight of the heart varied from 180 to 320 gms whereas in our study it varied from 170-510 gms. [4]

In this study, there was significant correlation with age of individual and length and weight of heart. So, this study will help the anthropologist as well as forensic experts if they know the weight and length of heart they can find the age of an individual. And they can also find the height of an individual, if they know the length of the heart, as in this study there was significant correlation with height of individual and length of heart. Also there was a significant correlation with weight of individual and weight of heart so by knowing the weight of heart, we can find the weight of an individual.

The study which we have done will help cardiothoracic surgeons while doing surgery on hearts. Even this study is also of importance to forensic experts as well as for the anthropologist. [6]

 
  References Top

1.
Kibria GM, Akhter NR, Hossain MM, Akhter S, Zakariah M. Morphometric measurements of heart in adult male Bangladeshi people in relation to the age and height of the individual. Bangladesh J Anat 2009;7:80-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Schoen FJ, Mitchell RN. The heart. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster AC, editors. The Pathologic Basis of Disease. 8 th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2010. p. 529-37.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sultana J, Akhter A, Choudhury S, Sultana Z. A Descriptive study of different dimensions of postmortem heart of adult Bangladeshi people. Jalalabad Med J 2011;8:3-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Dadgar SK, Tyagi SP. Importance of heart weight, weights of cardiac ventricles and left ventricle plus septum/right ventricle ratio in assessing cardiac hypertrophy. Jpn Heart J 1979;20:63-73.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.
Gaitskell K, Perera R, Soilleux EJ. Derivation of new reference tables for human heart weights in light of increasing body mass index. J Clin Pathol 2011;64:358-62.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Gawlikowska-Sroka A, Miklaszewska D, Czerwiñski F. Analysis of the influence of heart size and gender on coronary circulation type. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2010;69:35-41.  Back to cited text no. 6
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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