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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 154-163

Treatment outcome of newly detected pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients


Department of Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Satara, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Virendra C Patil
Department of Medicine, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Dhebewadi Road, Karad, Satara - 415 001, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-3334.138884

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Background: HIV infection is the strongest of all known risk factors for the development of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection and the number one cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. This was cross-sectional, observational and prospective study conducted at tertiary care center in western Maharashtra from May 2010 to April 2012. A total 50, HIV-seronegative patients and 50 HIV-seropositive patients of both genders, with pulmonary tuberculosis fulfilling inclusion criterion (age > 18 years, newly detected pulmonary tuberculosis) were included in present cross-sectional, observational, prospective and comparative study. Results: Of the total 50 HIV-seropositive patients, 36 (72%) males were newly detected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with mean age of 40.61 ± 8.74 years and 14 (28%) were females with mean age 37.72 ± 9.54 years. Of total 50 patients amongst HIV seronegative-group patients with PTB, 29 (58%) were males with mean age of 42.44 ± 5.79 years and 21 (42%) were females with mean age of 38.9 ± 7.91 years. A total 10/50 (20%) patients in HIV-seropositive group and 3/50 (6%) HIV-seronegative group had evidence of jaundice. There was a statistical difference between development of jaundices in HIV and HIV-seronegative group ['P' = 0.037]. Total 9/36 (25%) male patients and 2/14 (14.28%) females patients died in HIV-seropositive group with no death recorded amongst in HIV-seronegative groups with high mortality in HIV-seropositive group ['P' < 0.0001]. Total 4 male and 4 female patients had inflammatory response syndrome (IRIS). Total 40/50 (80%) patients were sputum negative at the end of 6 th month (2 nd follow-up) among HIV-seropositive group. Total 49/50 (98%) become a sputum negative at the end of 2 nd follow-up, 6 month among HIV-seronegative group there was a statistically significant difference between two group ['P' = 0.021]. Total 10/50 (20%) and 1/50 (2%) patients were diagnosed with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among HIV-seropositive group and HIV-seronegative group, respectively ['P' = 0.002]. There was high prevalence of middle and lower lobe lesions and bilateral extensive pulmonary tuberculosis (BEPT) in patients with HIV-seropositive group patients and upper lobe, miliary shadow and cavitary lesions in HIV-seronegative group patients ['P' < 0.02]. The cavitary lesions were significantly low in HIV-seropositive group with low CD+4 counts. Duration of stay was significantly more in HIV-seropositive group compared with HIV seronegative- seropositive group ['P' < 0.01]. Conclusions: We found high prevalence of MDR-TB pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-seropositive patients. Mortality was significantly high in HIV-seropositive patients than HIV-seronegative patients. Jaundice was more prevalent in HIV-seropositive patients than HIV-seronegative patients. There was high prevalence of middle and lower lobe lesions and BEPT in patients with HIV-seropositive group patients and upper lobe, miliary shadow and cavitary lesions in HIV-seronegative group patients. The cavitary lesions were significantly low in HIV-seropositive group with low CD+4 counts. Duration of stay was significantly more in HIV-seropositive group compared with HIV-seronegative group. Success rate of directly observed treatment short-course was less (80%) in HIV-seropositive group.


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